Tale trattamento preferenziale accordato alle biomasse dovrebbe quindi esser riequilibrato, per tener conto degli impatti negativi sulla salute umana e sull’ambiente. I dati presentati anche dalle ARPA regionali intervenute all’evento e da INSERM (Institut National de la Santè et de la Recherche Mèdicale) confermano gli impatti ambientali e sanitari derivanti dall’impiego delle biomasse nel settore del riscaldamento.
Leggi il comunicato stampa
European and Italian energy policies pursue several objectives including energy dependence reduction, greater energy efficiency and climate change mitigation.
The EU “20-20-20 Package” in 2009 set objectives for 2020. As a result:
- Directive EC/2009/28 on renewables transposed in the Italian legislation.
- National Action Plans for Renewable energies (PAN) and Energy Efficiency (PAEE).
- Elaboration of specific policy measures in support of renewables.
The 2013 National Energy Strategy for 2020 identifies renewable energy sources (RES) among the main priorities for action, setting for the power sector more ambitious targets than those set in the PAN and promoting thermal renewables.
- Cover with RES a 19-20% share of gross final energy consumption by 2020.
- Part of this contribution could be provided by thermal renewables (about 11 Mtoe/yr) including, besides solar thermal and heat pumps, a portion supplied by biomass as a fuel for boilers, closed fireplaces and stoves.
In home heating, the replacement of fossil fuels with biomass (conventionally considered as carbon neutral) is encouraged.
In Italy we use much more biomass in home heating than previously thought.
- A survey by ISTAT on Households energy consumption (2014), estimates the amount of biomass used in the residential sector in 2013 at about 19 Mt (of which 17.5 Mt consisting of wood and 1.5 Mt of pellets). About half of the wood use is unrecorded as it escapes market transactions.
A more favorable fiscal treatment is accorded to wood biomass and pellets.
- Atmospheric pollutants concentrations (including PM) are still too high in some areas of Italy, despite the adoption of fairly stringent European and national regulations on emissions from industrial plants and vehicles.
- The impact of air pollutants concentrations on the diffusion of respiratory diseases in humans is recognized by several epidemiological surveys and studies conducted worldwide by the WHO.
- The VIIAS study estimates about 30 000 premature deaths in Italy to be due solely to fine particulate (PM2.5).
Download the full report (PDF)